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1) A microorganism that enters the human body is always considered to be a pathogen- F :No, not all the micro-organisms that enter the human body are termed as a pathogen. A pathogen is usually referred to as a foreign microbe that can cause disease so not all micro-organisms that enter the body are harmful.
 
2) A large complex protein antigen generally can combine with many different antibody molecules -T Antibodies bind antigens via contacts with amino acids in CDRs, but the details of binding depend upon the size and shape of the antigen.
 
3) IgA provides passive immunity to a nursing infant-T : IgA is also transferred in milk, via the colostrum, from a nursing mother to an infant. This provides passive immunity to many pathogens, especially those that enter by way of the GI tract
 
4)Activated T cells secrete soluble T cell receptors which then move into the surrounding circulation-F :T cells represent a small subset of T cells that acquire a distinct T cell receptor on their surface.
 
5)Immune responses are never harmful to healthy self tissues-T :The immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
 
6)The T cell uses the same set of V, D, and J segments as the B cell, but uses different C segments- T:As T Cell uses Vβ-Dβ-Jβ-Cβ and B Cell uses V-D-J-Cμ-Cδ
 
7)Somatic hypermutation is the key mechanism that contributes to affinity maturation of antibodies- T:Somatic hypermutation (or SHM) is a cellular mechanism by which the immune system adapts to the new foreign elements that confront it. A major component of the process of affinity maturation,
 
8)The clonal selection hypothesis asserts that lymphocyte specificity is determined prior to contact with antigen and provides a framework for understanding specificity and memory of adaptive immune responses- T:Clonal selection theory is a scientific theory in immunology that explains the functions of cells of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. He also explained immunological memory as the cloning of two types of lymphocyte. One clone acts immediately to combat infection whilst the other is longer lasting, remaining in the immune system for a long time, which results in immunity to that antigen.
 
9)The TCR is bivalent. T:Full Activation of the T Cell Receptor Requires Both Clustering and Conformational Changes at CD3 and the conformational change leading to exposure of the PRS of CD3ɛ is induced upon binding of both bivalent and monovalent antibodies.
 
10)All antibodies have the same heavy chain constant regions-F:Antibodies are typically made of basic structural units—each with two large heavy chains and two small light chains and each heavy chain has two regions, the constant region and the variable region.The constant region is identical in all antibodies of the same isotype, but differs in antibodies of different isotypes
 
PART III
 
1)The Immune system depicts the one of the major part of our body which acts as the antigen and is used to fight against the foreign invaders. The immune system is classified into two categories which includes the adaptive and innate immune systems.  In the case innate immune system, when the foreign invaders attack, they activate immediately as they are termed as the non specific defense mechanisms, they usually get activated by the chemical properties. Macrophages are one of the examples of the innate immunity that requires full adaptive response and again the effectors mechanism response depends on the various other components of the innate immunity. The examples of the cooperation within the immune system are represents by the activation of the packets enzymes within cells termed as mast cells.  Some foreign cells can stimulate the mast cells to release the toxic material and also activate these cells. That is how the immune system works to be co dependent and cooperative branches of immunity.
 
2) The five principle categories of the antibody effectors functions are neutralization, opsonization, and antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, sensitization, and complement activation.
 
  • In neutralization, the antibodies combine to the foreign and the pathogen substance and completely block the pathogen’s capability to interrelate and interact with their target cell.
  • An antibody can connect to a pathogen and can opsonize the material and induce phagocytosis. The Fc region of the IgG antibody interacts with the Fc receptors on phagocyte cells that cause the pathogen to be more readily phagocytosed.
  •  In antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, the IgG antibodies coat the surface of the target cell and act to bring the natural killer cells and the target cell together to allow destruction of the target cell. NK cells have on their surface an Fc receptor for IgG antibody Fc domains and thus they can recognize, bind and kill target cells coated with antibody.
  • Sensitization: The Mast cells have high-affinity Fc receptors on their cell surface that are attached to IgE antibodies. The Antigen cross-linking triggers the mast cell to release granules containing inflammatory mediators like histamine and serotonin. 
  • Complement activation: Activation of the complement cascade by antibodies can result in the pathogen lysis. Also, some components of the cascade opsonize pathogens and induce phagocytosis. Antibodies that bind with their Fc region to the surface of antigens activate the classical complement cascade. 
 3a)In the early 19th century, the concept of magic bullet that became famous which is an ideal therapeutic agent can be produced to kill a target pathogen. It came after the development of monoclonal antibodies that represents the particular binding affinity.
 
b)Cesar Milstein, a famous biochemist, required to analyze the rate and the nature of mutations of antibody that produces cells to see how the mutations affected an antibody’s ability to connect to antigen. The experiments used Potter’s mouse myeloma tumors to create cell cultures but at last they failed. The cells in cultures used in Milstein’s experiments weren’t able to demonstrate the high maturation rates in the variable regions of the antibodies. It was due to the fact that his myeloma cell cultures formed abnormal antibodies that were weak when it came to binding with an antigen in vivo. In Switzerland, Kohler was trying to validate the role mutation plays in antibody structure.
 
Kohler was using cultured B cells that had high antigen binding ability but quickly died out. After hearing Milstein give a talk about his research, Kohler came to work in his lab. The two fused antibody-producing B cells from mouse spleen to mouse myeloma cells. The mice were previously injected with antigen and a culture medium was used to select fused cells producing the antibody to the antigen. After years of failed experiments, the cell fusion worked and they could produce pure, monoclonal antibodies that only bound specific antigen.
 
c) The key difference between the chimeric, humanized and fully humanized antibodies is the following:
 
A chimeric antibody is a fusion part of a human and mouse antibody. Chimeric antibodies consist of 33% mouse protein and 67% human protein. They are created to minimize the human anti mouse antibody i.e. HAMA.A humanized antibody is also a genetically engineered antibody in which a minimum mouse part from a murine antibody is transplanted onto a human antibody, they are usually 5-10 % mouse and 90-95% human. They are created to counter the HAMA and HACA responses seen with murine and chimeric antibodies.
 
The fully antibody are derived from transgenic mice that carries human antibody genes or from human cells.
               
 Ans-4
 
a)In this case, the vaccine has been not valid with the application of the UV energy. In this case, as the organism have not been activated then they do not duplicate in the host animal and there would be no amplification of the amount of antigen other that what you get in the vial. However, immunity is shorter lived that with a modified live vaccines and also requires a second and the booster shot within 4-6 weeks. In rare of the rarest conditions, the inactivation might not be potent enough and the vaccinated individual might become sick with the infection that is why an inactivated vaccine should be identical to the organism. This type of vaccine should produce only B cell and T helper response. 
 
b)Attenuated viral preparations are used to prevent the human lost. These medicines are actually produced from the invading particle and therefore cause the more severe reaction and thus cytotoxic T cell response. A small quantity of the offender is given to the person who is getting the vaccine. In order for this particle to make an immune response in the human the bacteria and the virus needs to grow inside the host under the normal conditions. If the invaders do not cause the disease then it would be much milder than would be expected from the nature.
 
Ans-5
 
a)RAG1 and RAG2 are the two proteins that are mandatory for the immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene recombination. RAG stands for recombination ACTIVATING GENE. RAG1 and RAG2 work closely together in receptor gene recombination. Therefore the immunologists refer to the two proteins together as RAG protein. RAG1 and RAG2 make up the lymphoid specific parts recombines a complex of enzymes that work together to join gene segments of B cell and T cell receptor genes.
 
b)An inherited disorder that could result from this finding would undoubtedly involve the absence of circulating B cells as well as infiltration of the skin and the intestine by activated oligoclonal T lymphocytes. Inherited mutations in either the recombination activating genes RAG1 or RAG2 can be responsible for this type of activity.
 
c)The differentiation between two different groups of antibodies, states that the fact that the RAG double mutant group should have a combination of both B and T cells in the strain. On the other hand, the CD8 strain would contain only T cells. Their differentiation is used to utilize FACS that is targeted to identify a B cell population. If we can recognize B cells in a strain, then we know that we have the RAG double mutant group, if not then we have the CD8 group.

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