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Toxicology is referred as the science of poisons which provides the study of chemicals that are causes problems for living things. Toxicology encompasses with biology, pharmacology, chemistry, and medicine which involves the diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants as well as provides the study of adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms.
Few topics are:
- Behaviour toxicology
- Development toxicology
- Genetic toxicology
- ionising radiation
- embryonic and embryonic development
- Environmental toxicology
- food toxicology
Toxicology defines the adverse effects of poisonous chemicals that occur in living organisms. In this process, symptoms are observed and reported as soon as they detected in human beings. It also involves some specific mechanisms, detection and treatments of toxic substances. Pharmaceutical compounds with environmental agents and chemical compounds of natures are synthesized for medical use by humans. This produces toxic effects in living organisms which further includes disturbance in growth patterns, disease, discomfort and death. Toxicology is further divided into sub disciplines which mainly focus on particular aspects of toxicology that are listed below:
- Clinical toxicology
- Environmental toxicology
- Forensic toxicology
- Medical toxicology
- Aquatic toxicology
- Chemical toxicology
- Occupational toxicology
- Regulatory toxicology
- Pharmaceutical toxicology
Toxicology is the combination of elements of chemistry and biology. An important factor in toxicology is termed as DOSE of the substance. It is used to classify the toxicity of the chemical and measures the quantity of chemical. Toxicology helps to avoid chemical injuries and manages accidental exposures of human beings.
Toxicologists are responsible for applying molecular, genetic and advanced analytical techniques with elements of scientific disciplines to avoid the harmful effects of chemicals on living beings. They develop new and better ways to determine poisonous effects of chemicals in living organisms and access the probability that particular chemicals or process should define the significant risk to human or the environment.
Toxicology is the logical study of adverse impacts that happen in living life because of chemicals. It includes watching and detailing side effects, systems, discovery and medicines of dangerous substances, specifically connection to the harming of people.
It incorporates ecological operators and synthetic mixes found in nature, and in addition pharmaceutical exacerbates that are combined for restorative use by people. These substances may create dangerous impacts in living life forms incorporating unsettling influence in development designs, inconvenience, sickness and demise.
The measurement of the substance is an essential factor in toxicology, as it has a huge association with the impacts experienced by the person. It is the essential methods for ordering the poisonous quality of the synthetic, as it quantifies the amount of the compound or the presentation to the substance. All substances can possibly be harmful if given to living life forms in the correct conditions and measurements.
There are a few branches of toxicology, known as sub disciplines or subspecialties, which concentrate on specific parts of toxicology. These include: Toxicogenomics, Aquatic toxicology, Chemical toxicology, Clinical toxicology, Ecotoxicology, Environmental toxicology, Forensic toxicology, Medical toxicology, Occupational toxicology and Regulatory toxicology.
Toxicology is a profoundly unique field which is extending and adjusting as society changes and new requests must be met. Toxicology requires communications between science, science, solution, veterinary pharmaceutical, drug store and ecological science.
Toxicology interconnects research, peril and hazard appraisal and hazard administration, to secure general wellbeing. Toxicologists are researchers prepared to examine, translate and impart the idea of those impacts, along these lines giving the essential premise to assurance measures. Toxicologists are habitually utilized in industry, the scholarly community and administrative bodies having amix of appropriate information, experience and expert capabilities.
Topics for Toxicology
- Historical perspective and the scope of toxicology , forensic toxicology, regulatory toxicology, environmental toxicology, Mechanisms of biochemical toxicity, role of ADME, Phase I functionalisation reactions
- Phase II conjugation reactions, biochemical toxicity inter alia, age, diet, sex, species, genetic variation, component interaction, free radical mediated processes , heavy metal toxicity,Experimental basis of toxicity
- Use and limitations of animal tests , acute, sub-acute and chronic tests, use and limitations of non-animal tests inter alia Ames test , use of organ, tissue and cell culture, organ specific toxicity , cardiotoxicity due to adriamycin
- Pneumotoxicity due to paraquat , hepatotoxicity due to tetrachloromethane, allyl alcohol or ethanol, specific toxicity such as immunotoxicity,Radiation toxicity , oxygen toxicity, use of biomarkers to incate specific toxicity
- Role of forensic toxicology , Principles of Experimental Toxicology , Risk Assessment, Target Organ Toxicology, Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism, Carcinogenesis and Mutagenicity, Reproductive Toxicology
- Principles of Toxicological Pathology, Alternative Methodologies to the Use of Animals in Toxicology,Bioinformatics and Omics, Biologics, Biomarkers, Dermal Toxicology, Design of In Vivo Studies, Ecotoxicology
- Endocrine Disruptors, Endocrine Pathology, Experimental Inhalation Toxicology, Food Chemical Safety Evaluation, Haematology and Clinical Biochemistry, Immunotoxicology, Nanotoxicology, Occupational Toxicology
- Paediatric Toxicology, Plant Protection Products , Plant Biotechnology, Safety Assessment of Pharmaceutical Agents,Chemical toxicity,numerical toxicity,metabolism ,factors influencing toxicity,Mechanisms of organic toxicity,mechanism of toxicity for specific metals,pesticides,solvents ,substances of abuse