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Computer architecture refers to the set of rules that explains the organization and functionality of the computer. Logical structure of the system refers to the computer organization which includes the hardware components of systems like CPU, I/O devices, memory and storage devices, etc. Computer organization comes after the computer architecture. Computer architecture deals with the operational structure of a system while computer organization concerns with the linking of operational attributes. Functional unit of computers are CPU, input and output unit, bus structure and memory. Computer organization includes some major concepts such as representations of instruction, memory subsystem, processing unit, I/O subsystem. Main components of computer architecture and organization are given below:
- I/O unit
- Control unit
- Memory organization
- Instruction set
Input/output unit used to transfers the data between system and peripheral device. Control unit is the component of CPU. Memory organization refers to the information, data and knowledge of an individual organization. Instruction set is the set of machine code instructions which can be execute by CPU. RISC/CISC stands for reduces instruction set computer and complex instruction set computer.
Main subcategories of computer architecture are Microarchitecture, system design and instruction set architecture. Computer organization also helps in the selection of a processor for a project.
- microcoded bus-based “CISC” processor, RISC architectures,
- unpipelined processor, data and control hazards, bypassing,
- interrupts, exception handling
- memory technology, cache hierarchies, direct mapped caches
- associative caches, replacement and write policies
- cache microarchitecture with parallel read and pipelined write
- topology basics, torus and butterly topologies, crossbars
- routing algorithms, Low control
- deadlock avoidance, simple pipelined router microarchitecture
- superscalar execution, branch prediction, out-of-order execution
- register renaming, memory disambiguation
- VLIW machines, vector processing, multithreading
- snoopy cache coherence, synchronization
- consistency, address translation and protection
- translation-lookaside buffers, virtual memory
- Example Architectures
- MIT Raw,
- Tilera TILE64 Pro
- Intel Sandy Bridge,
- AMD Bulldozer
computer design, Computer architecture, assembly language programming and machine language set design. Computer organization, logical modules; CPU, memory and I/O units. Instruction cycles, the datapath and control unit. Hardwiring and microprogramming. The memory subsystem and timing. I/O interface, interrupts, programmed I/O and DMA. Introduction to pipelining and memory hierarchies. Fundamentals of computer networks.
COM S 321 Introduction to Computer Architecture and Machine-Level Programming
- computer architecture and organization, datapath and control
- memory hierarchy design, pipelining, Assembly language on a simulator