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**Cryptography**

Cryptography is the process of converting plain text into unintelligible text. It is a method of transmitting and storing the data in a particular form. It is not only protect the data but also used for user authentication. Cryptographic is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrpt the data. It enables to store sensitive information or transmit it across the insecure networks.

**There are five primary functions in crptography are**- Privacy/confidentiality, Authentication, Integrity, Non-repudiation, Key exchange

**Features Of Cryptography are as follows**: Confidentiality, Integrity, Non-repudiation, and Authentication

**In general there are three types Of cryptography:** Symmetric Key Cryptography, Hash Functions, Asymmetric Key Cryptography

**Important subtopics covered in crptography-**

- Custom Building Cryptography Algorithms (Hybrid Cryptography)

- Classical Cryptography and Quantum Cryptography

- DNA Cryptography

- Development of Cryptography

- Quantum Cryptography

- RSA Algorithm in Cryptography

- The CIA triad in Cryptography

- Difference between Steganography and Cryptography

- Easy Key Management in Cryptography

- Image Steganography in Cryptography

- Caesar Cipher in Cryptography

- Computer Network**Some of the homework help topics include :**

- symmetric-key encryption ,One time pad and stream ciphers ,Block ciphers ,Block cipher abstractions: PRPs and PRFs ,Attacks on block ciphers ,Message integrity ,Collision resistant hashing ,Authenticated encryption
- Public key cryptography ,Cryptography using arithmetic modulo primes ,Arithmetic modulo primes ,Public key encryption ,Digital signatures ,Identification protocols ,Authenticated key exchange and SSL/TLS session setup
- Zero knowledge protocols ,Identification protocols ,Password protocols, salts, PBKDF2; one time passwords (S/Key and SecurID) ,challenge response authentication ,Basic symmetric-key encryption, ,One time pad and stream ciphers,perfect secrecy and the one time pad. ,semantic security and stream ciphers.
- Block ciphers,Case studies: Feistel networks, DES, 3DES, and AES. ,basic modes of operation: CBC and counter mode.,,,,Block cipher abstractions: PRPs and PRFs ,Pseudo Random Permutations (PRP); Pseudo Random Functions (PRF) ,security against chosen plaintext attacks (CPA); ,nonce-based CBC encryption and nonce-based counter mode ,Attacks on block ciphers,exhaustive search, time-space tradeoffs, ,differential & linear cryptanalysis, meet in the middle, side channels.,
- Message integrity: definition and applications,CBC-MAC and PMAC ,Collision resistant hashing,Merkle-Damgard and Davies-Meyer. MACs from collision resistance. ,Case studies: SHA and HMAC , Authenticated encryption: security against active attacks,session setup using a key distribution center (KDC).,Public key cryptography ,Arithmetic modulo primes,Cryptography using arithmetic modulo primes,vanilla key exchange (Diffie-Hellman); the CDH and discrete-log assumptions,
- Public key encryption,semantically secure ElGamal encryption; CCA security,,,Arithmetic modulo composites ,RSA and Rabin functions. ,how to encrypt with trapdoor permutations , Digital signatures: definitions and applications,How to sign using RSA.,
- More signature schemes,Lamport and Merkle schemes. ,basics of signatures based on discrete-log. ,certificates and trust management ,Real world crypto: SSL/TLS and IPsec,record protocol. key exchange. password-based key exchange,The EMV payment protocol

**Cryptography & Coding**

- Privacy of messages,Cryptology ,Finite field arithmetic,Error-detecting ,Error-correcting codes,Data compressions,Ciphers,One-time pads,Enigma machine ,One-way functions,Discrete logarithm , Primality testing,Secret key exchange,Public key cryptosystems,Digital signatures,Key escrow
- Primitive roots in cyclic groups and the discrete log problem are discussed,Baby-step Giant-step , Index Calculus probabilistic algorithms to compute discrete logs in cyclic groups are presented
- Naor – Reingold and Blum – Blum – Shub Random Number Generators ,Fermat, Euler and Miller-Rabin primality tests ,Pollard’s Rho, Pollard’s
- Quadratic Sieve factorization algorithms ,classical cryptosystems,DES,AES,RSA,digital signatures,secret-sharing schemes,digital cash and key establishment protocols
- private and public-key cryptography,block ciphers,data encryption,authentication,key distribution and certification,pseudorandom number generators
- design and analysis of protocols,zero-knowledge proofs,advanced protocols,formal definitions of security goals,proofs of protocol security.

- secure communication,DES ,AES,public key cryptosystems,elliptic curves,hash algorithms,digital signatures,applications,Relevant material ,number theory ,finite fields

**Complex Topics for Cryptography Assignment help :**

- Authenticated Encryption,Basic Key Exchange,Public-Key Encryption,,Private-key, Cryptography, Pseudorandomness, MACs, Hashing,Public-key Cryptography
- Digital Signatures,Multi-party Computation,,Probability,number theory,abstract algebra,Symmetric key primitives,OWF, PRG, PRF, symmetric key encryption
- Asymmetric key primitives,Public key encryption,Cryptographic protocols,Key exchange,OT, ZK proofs,secure computation,Disk encryption,Bitcoin,secure messaging
- Broadcast encryption,traitor tracing,honey encryption,steganography,,Symmetric ciphers,The Caesar,transposition,affine and simple substitution ciphers
- one-time pad,Asymmetric ciphers,ElGamal,=,elliptic curve cryptography,,cryptanalysis,substitution ciphers,block ciphers,data integrity, Euclidean algorithm
- Euler phi-function,Email security,Key management,secure shell,,stream ciphers,Block Ciphers,Message Integrity,Authenticated Encryption,Basic Key Exchange,Public-Key Encryption
- Cryptography:cipher,symmetric-key encryption, One time pad and stream ciphers,perfect secrecy and the one time pad,semantic security and stream ciphers
- Block ciphers: Feistel networks. modes of operation: CBC and counter mode.Block cipher abstractions: PRPs and PRFs :Pseudo Random Permutations (PRP)
- Pseudo Random Functions (PRF); security against chosen plaintext attacks (CPA); nonce-based CBC encryption, nonce-based counter mode.
- Attacks on block ciphers:exhaustive search;time-space tradeoffs;differential & linear cryptanalysis;Message integrity,Collision resistant hashing
- Merkle-Damgard and Davies-Meyer;MACs from collision resistance. Authenticated encryption;security against active attacks,Public key cryptography
- Arithmetic modulo primes;Cryptography using arithmetic modulo primes;Public key encryption,Arithmetic modulo composites :RSA and Rabin functions. encrypt with trapdoor permutations.
- Digital signatures: definitions and applications;Hash based signatures. certificates, certificate transparency, certificate revocation. Identification protocols :Password protocols, salts; one time passwords ; challenge response authentication.
- permutations and substitutions ,Vignere,Vernam,one time pads,Rotor machines,Enigma ,Modern cryptography,secret key,block cyphers, DES,AES
- public key,Diffie-Hellman,RSA,elliptic curves,Message authentication ,hash functions.,Quantum cryptography,quantum key distribution

**Few Topics are:**

- Classical ciphers
- Cryptanalysis of classical ciphers
- Probability theory
- Perfect security
- Block ciphers
- DES
- AES
- Block cipher modes of operation
- Private-key encryption
- Message authentication codes
- Private-key authentication
- CBC-MAC
- Pseudorandom functions
- CCA-secure private-key encryption
- Hash functions
- Integrity
- Pre-image resistance
- Collision-resistance
- SHA-256
- NMAC/HMAC
- Key distribution
- Modular arithmetic and group theory
- Diffie-Hellman key exchange
- Public-key Distribution
- EIGamal encryption
- Cramer-Shoup encryption
- Discrete logarithm problem
- Digital Signatures
- RSA signatures
- RSA-FDH and RSA-PSS signatures
- DSA signatures
- 509 certificates
- Certification paths