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Engineering Orbital Mechanics
Engineering Orbital Mechanics refers to modelling the dynamic behaviour of natural and artificial bodies in the solar system by focusing on the applications of celestial mechanics, analytical dynamics, geophysics, numerical analysis, optimization theory, estimation theory, mathematics, and computer technology. It includes two area i.e. satellite applications and spacecraft design, where Satellite applications analyze the active and passive satellite remote sensing research in earth, ocean, atmospheric, and planetary science; satellite positioning, Global Positioning System (GPS) for earth science research; and satellite tracking and instrumentation & spacecraft design includes disciplines of aerospace engineering to the design of aerospace vehicles, missions, and related systems.
Orbital mechanics mainly deals with the study of the movement of the synthetic satellites with respect to the impact of the forces, such as thrust, gravity and many more. It is also known as flight mechanics which involves the research in the applications of numerical analysis, mathematics, optimization theory, celestial mechanics and many more.It deals with the various major topics such as orbit determination techniques, two-body problem, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, relative motion and rendezvous, orbital maneuvers, orbit determination, interplanetary trajectories and many more.
Engineering Orbital Mechanics is considered as the imperative subject that comes under the Mechanical Engineering. This field also concerned with the movement of the celestial bodies which includes worlds and moon. It mainly focuses on the airplane modifications, orbital maneuvers and spacecraft trajectories.
Spacecraft design concerned with the designing of the various parts of space such as aerospace vehicles, missions and other related systems. For designing all of this, it involves the applications of aerospace engineering. Experimental facilities involve a satellite laboratory which comes with best satellite tracking station, testing of the hardware of flight, etc.
Satellite applications is one of the major concepts of the Engineering Orbital Mechanics which deals with the study of research in satellite positioning, atmospheric science, planetary science by using remote sensing measurements image processing equipment and various computer workstations. . It also performs the research in Earth science by using GPS.
Orbital maneuver is used to improve the orbit of a spacecraft in spaceflight by using propulsion systems. It is known as coasting in transfer orbits whereas transfer orbits enables spacecraft to move from one orbit to another. These orbits needs burn at the start and end and occasionally, in the middle also. In gravity assist, a planet oscillates a spacecraft and then leaves it in an opposite direction
Further, an integration of gravitationally regulated pathways which needs very small energy to follow an object is termed as Interplanetary Transport Network.
Spacecraft propulsion refers to a way which is used to accelerate the various kinds of satellites such as artificial and spacecraft. It used various techniques for performing the tasks and each technique has some advantages and disadvantages also. Nowadays, a spacecraft can be propelled by thrusting a gas from the back of the vehicle with very high speed. This type of engine is termed as rocket engine.
A kelper orbit is defined as the movement of the bodies related to each other in celestial mechanics and this movement can be in any form such as hyperbola, ellipse, etc. orientation of the orbital plane can be defined by three major elements which are given below:
- Argument of periapsis
- Longitude of the ascending node
Moreover, Engineering Orbital Mechanics subject covers the various major topics such as kinematics and Newtonian dynamics, interplanetary trajectories, rocket vehicle dynamics, material on rigid body dynamic, spacecraft control systems, and many more. Few Advanced topics that involved in Engineering Orbital Mechanics subject are listed below:
- Lunar and interplanetary trajectories
- Space Propulsion
- Space Environment
- Lagrangian point
- Two-body problem, Kepler’s laws, equations of conic sections, Geocentric orbits, canonical units, Orbital elements, STK, Orbital transfers, Time of flight, Lambert’s theorem
- Universal variables, Numerical methods, MatLab, Interplanetary transfers, Planetary fly-by, gravity assist, The intercept problem, Fast transfers, Atmospheric entry, Kepler’s equations and Kepler’s problem.,orbital elements.
- Time and reference systems.,Transformation between different reference systems.,Undisturbed elliptic, hyperbolic, and parabolic orbit., Orbital maneuvers and transfers., Orbit determination
- Lambert’s problem.,Orbit perturbations:Flattening and irregularities of the Earth,, third-body perturbation,, atmospheric drag force,, solar-radiation pressure., General motion velocity and acceleration in 3D
- Angular momentum in 3D, Rotational kinetic energy in 3D, Eulers Equations of Motion for 3D rotation, 3D Dynamics: Applications in Mechanical Systems, Forced Precession and Gyroscopic forces, vehicles, mechanisms & machinery.
- Balancing of Multicylinder engines, Vibration and Dynamics, Orbital Mechanics, Hohmann transfers, rocket equation, conic sections, Gravity assisted fly-by's, Aero-gravity assisted maneuvers, Reentry dynamics
- 3D Dynamics: Applications in Spacecraft Systems,Forced Precession and Gyroscopic forces, Spacecraft attitude dynamics and stability.
- Equations of Motion, Newtons Laws
- Two-Body Equations of Motion, Energy, Angular Momentum Integrals of Motion, Characteristics of Conic Motion, Perigee, Apogee, Classical Orbit Elements, Position, Velocity
- Orbit Elements, G. Orbit Elements, Position, Velocity, Orbit as a Function of Time, Anomalies, Keplers Equation, Solution of Keplers Equation, Satellite Ground Tracks
- Coordinate Systems, Time, Coordinate Systems, Measurement of Time, Shape of the Earth, Orbit Maneuvers, Coplanar Transfers, Hohmann Transfer, Rendezvous
- Relative Motion, Non-Coplanar Transfers, Perturbations, N-Body Problem, Restricted 3-Body Problem, Perturbation Methods, Earths Gravity Field, Effects of Oblateness, Atmospheric Drag
- Solar Radiation Pressure, Special Orbits, Global Positioning System, Interplanetary Orbits, Physical principles, two-body, central force motion, trajectory correction maneuvers, position and velocity in conic orbits
- Lamberts problem, celestial mechanics, orbital perturbations, heory of perturbations of orbits, numerical methods in orbital mechanics, satellite dynamics, averaging methods, resonance, mission analysis