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- Cost of microcontroller is less.
- Availability of large amount of ROM and RAM .
- Number of input /output port and timers are maximum.
- Process of upgrading is simple.
- It includes software development tools likes compiler , debuggers , emulator , simulator etc .
Some of the homework help topics include:
- Processor machine languages and high level languages ,interpreted and compiled languages
- ROM, RAM and I/O resources available on the BASIC Stamp II ,flowcharts for operations ,Microprocessors
- Micro controllers & Flowcharting , differences between microcontrollers and microprocessors, PROGRAMMING , BASIC STAMP II (BS2)
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Help for complex topics like:
- Stamp activity board & basic i/o;simple i/o communication;board leds and buttons;activity board speaker;debouncing buttons;;binary numbers;decimal number system;digital and binary;nibbles, bytes and words
- Using debug to display binary data;pbasic2 i/o using nibbles, bytes and words;msb & lsb;;analog inputs and outputs;pulse width modulated output;activity board aout;analog to digital converters (adc);
- Resistive devices and rctime;scaling inputs;process control;on-off control;differential-gap control;proportional control mode;derivative & integral control;hexadecimal & bs2 memory;hexadecimal;bs2 memory & variable storage
- bs2 memory map and eeprom storage;logical operators and signed numbers;pbasic2 and logical operators;masking;binary addition & subtraction;;digital communications;parallel communications;synchronous serial communications;asynchronous serial communications
A microprocessor is an integrated circuit (IC) which through address lines, data lines, and control lines has the ability to:
a) Read and execute program instructions from external Read Only Memory (ROM).
b) Hold temporary data and programs in external Random Access Memory (RAM) by writing or reading.
c) Perform input-from and output-to devices using these same lines.
- Address Lines (16)
- Data Lines (8)
Simple Microprocessor System,Many times electronic needs require the ability to read data from devices, and based upon the application, control output devices. Take for example a microwave oven. It requires input data such as cooking time and power setting to heat your food. It collects this data through a touch
Output is the control of the microwave heating device and a digital display to provide you with information.
It is possible to use a microprocessor for this application. Electronically we would need a microprocessor bussed to ROM IC's, RAM IC's, display drivers, keypad drives, and various support components. It would take a minimum of 5 IC's to simply fulfill the requirement to read a single input, and based on the application requirements, use this data to turn on a single output.
- The Microcontroller :The microcontroller is a specialized microprocessor that contains much of the circuitry and devices needed internally to collect data from inputs. It holds permanent programs in a type of ROM. It has temporary storage space for data in RAM and can control simple devices through outputs.
- This microcontroller has contained in it 2000 bytes of ROM memory, 72 bytes of RAM memory, and 20 I/O pins to gather data or control devices.
While the ROM area to hold a program is not large, nor the RAM area to hold variables (a typical PC computer has 32 MILLION bytes of RAM for programs and variables), it may be very sufficient for control of simple systems. Of course, additional ROM, RAM, and specialized devices can be added to supplement these built in capabilities.
- Microprocessors and microcontrollers work off of very specialized instructions designed for them. Each one has unique instructions to perform tasks such as reading from memory, adding numbers together and manipulating data. For example, the Intel Pentium found in IBM compatibles uses a completely different instruction set from the Motorola PowerPC used in Macintosh computers. Programs for these processors work in what is known as machine language. A task as simple as multiplying two numbers together may take hundreds of machine instructions to accomplish. These programs can be very cryptic to programmers not familiar
with that processor's unique instruction set. For example code to add 3 plus 2 and store the results may look like:
- LDA #$03
- STA $1B3C
- LDA #$02
- ADD $1B3C
- STA $1B3D
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Microcontrollers Manual High level languages such as BASIC and C use instructions that are more understandable to users since they use pseudo-English to program in. In addition, a version of BASIC designed for IBM PC's may be much like the BASIC designed for Macintoshes. A line of code to add 3 plus 2
and store the result may look like:
- Sum = 3 + 2
It is the job of the high level language's interpreter or compiler to take this BASIC code and make it understandable to the unique processor on which it is running. An interpreter decodes to
machine language at run time, a compiler decodes the program into machine language before running it.
The BASIC Stamp II (BS2)
This processor has gained world wide popularity because of its powerful but simple programming language, PBASIC2 (PBASIC is used in the original Stamp), which is based on the very popular BASIC language for many different computers. The BS2 has at its heart a PIC16C57 compatible microcontroller. Programs are edited on a host computer, using such common commands as IF-THEN, GOTO,
GOSUB and so on. The code is then tokenized and transferred to the BS2 where it resides in EEPROM.
The nerve center of the device is the PIC16C57 (or compatible) microcontroller. The on-chip 2K of ROM stores for the BS2's PBASIC2 Interpreter. The actual tokenized programs written by the programmer are,stored in an external 2K EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory).Of the 20 I/O lines available on the PIC16C57, 2 are used to read and write EEPROM memory
and 2 others are used for serial communications to the host PC for programming. This leaves 16 I/O lines, or pins, for the BS2 user.Of the 72 bytes of RAM available on the PIC16C57, 32 bytes of RAM are available to the programmer with 6 of these being used as 'registers' to control the input/output pins.
It is important to understand that once programmed the BS2 is completely independent of the host PC. The BS2 may be disconnected from the PC and will continue to perform its program. It may also have power removed, re-applied, and will proceed to run the stored program.
As you work through this manual you will be introduced to various PBASIC2 language commands in controlling the BS2 while applying fundamentals of electronics to microcontrollers.
Flowcharting:Flowcharting is a method of symbolically representing an operation and is typically used in programming. Flowcharting is not only limited to programming. It may be applied to anything that involves operations. Let's first look at some common flowcharting symbols.
- Start / End of a
- Process: Defines an
- action to be taken.
- I/O: Defines an input/
- output to be performed.
- Decision: Defines a
- decision to be made,
- and direction to take
- based on results.
- Flowcharting Symbols
A complex process may be flowcharted at several levels. The first giving the general operation level then going deeper into specifics with other flowcharts. In general, you want the flowchart to sufficiently describe the process involved without giving step by step instructions or program
The Stamp Activity Board & BASIC I/O
1) List the I/O devices available on the Activity Board.
2) Identify the BS2 pin numbers associated with each I/O.
3) Discuss terminology and respective voltages associated with digital I/O.
4) Write PBASIC2 code to read and write to simple I/O.
5) Use PBASIC2 commands to control the Activity Board speaker.
6) Discuss the need for debouncing input devices.
7) Write PBASIC2 code for debouncing buttons.
Host computer connectors (The DB-9 serial port will be used with the BS2).
- A Reset button to 'restart' the BS2 program.
- 4 push-button switches.
- 4 LED lamps.
- 1 potentiometer
- 1 piezo-electric speaker.
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Topics like 1 analog output. & the assignment help on these topics is really helpful if you are struggling with the complex problems.