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Separation process is the process of transforming a mixture of substance into two or more different products. Separation process mainly concerns with the chemical engineering. Most common separation methods are evaporation, absorption, distillation, filtration, drying and membrane process, crystallization, centrifugation. Separation process involves two phases which are gas and liquid, liquid and solid. Separation process can be analyzed and designed as equilibrium stage process.
Equilibrium stage is relevant when the process is established as a series of discrete stages. In these stages, two phases are contacted first and then separated. This method plays an important role in the design and analysis of chemical separation process. In separation process, it is difficult to separate components from a single phase but easy in two phase. Separation process can be classified into three categories:
- Membrane separations
Unit operation is another main concept in separation process engineering which involves chemical transformation such as filtration, polymerization, etc. Design methods for unit operations are similar to the separation process. But nowadays, separation process is more widely used than the unit operation in biotechnology.
- Thermodynamics, Mass Transfer and Diffusion, Single Equilibrium Stages, Binary Distillation, Cascades, Hybrid Systems, Multicomponent Separations, Absorption, Stripping, Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Membranes, Absorption in Packed Towers
- Graphical Equilibrium Stage Method for Trayed Towers, Algebraic Method for Determining the Number of Stages, Rate Based Method for Packed Columns, Packed-Column Efficiency, Capacity and Pressure Drop, Concentrated Solutions in Packed Columns
- Flash Distillation, bubble point and dew point, Ternary Liquid-Liquid Systems, Differential Batch Distillation, Cascades: Single Stage, Multiple-Contact Stages, Distillation Systems and Equipment, Binary Distillation
- McCabe Thiele Technique: Operating lines for enriching and stripping sections;, q lines for the feed, counting off stages, optimum feed location, limiting cases of total reflux and, minimum reflux.
Topics for Separation Process Engineering :
- Distillation, Vapour liquid equilibrium , equilibrium stage calculations, Calculating the number of stages in a distillation column, reflux ration , affect of the condition of the feed , design of column internals, hydraulic design for trays, hydraulic design for packing, Gas Absorption/Stripping, Mass transfer in continuous contact separation processes, Calculating the height of packed columns
- effect of temperature, pressure on gas absorption , pressure on stripping, Solvent Extraction, Liquid-liquid equilibrium, single equilibrium stage extraction calculations, Cross flow , counter flow cascades, Drying, terminology of humidification, Use of psychometric charts, Mass balances for humid systems, Drying curves, constant rate drying, falling rate drying , mechanisms of solids drying, issues of dryer design
- choice of the correct dryer design , Descriptions of separation processes, stages, cascades, co flows, countercurrent flows, Phase equilibrium, gas-liquid, liquid-vapour , vapour pressures , relative volatility, Material balance calculations on separation cascades, Mole fraction , mole ratio coordinates, graphical representation, operating line, Effect of L/V ratio in absorption, Minimum L/V ratio, Stripping V/L
- minimum V/L, Distillation, rectifying , stripping sections, material balances, Constant molal overflow, Balances over top plate/condenser , Balances over bottom plate/reboiler, Feed plate location , q-line , McCabe-Thiele construction, Minimum reflux ratio , minimum number of stages, Fenske equation , Partial condensers, multiple feed/product streams, Stage efficiencies , design of plate columns, Selection of reflux ratio, Use of triangular diagrams for ternary systems, Phase boundaries , tie-lines, Overall mass balance , sum point, Stage-to-stage mass balance
- Stagewise graphical solution, Minimum solvent, Absolute , relative humidities, wet temperatures, dry-bulb temperatures, specific volume , enthalpy of humid air.